Title:  Reducing deer browsing with electric fencing.
Author(s): Brenneman, R. E.
Year: 1987
Abstract: For the past 8 years Hammermill Paper Company has been using electric fencing to reduce deer browsing damage to hardwood seedlings in northcentral and northwestern Pennsylvania and southwestern New York. We have used a five-strand vertical fence 58 inches high. The fences were constructed using high tensile strength galvanized steel wire and Gallagher 3-12 energizers powered by 12-volt wet batteries. Solar panels and wind mills were used in coniunction with the batteries. Fifty-three individual sites encompassing 3,358 ac have been enclosed with electric fencing. Materials for constructing the fences averaged $21.59 per acre in 1985 and 1986 or $0.18 per linear foot of fence. Labor to construct the fences was $17.56 per acre or $0.14 per linear foot. Additionally, routine maintenance costs were at least $3.50 per acre per year. Regeneration surveys taken in 1985 and 1986 in 22 fenced clearcuts, with at least one growing season completed since fencing, indicated that 80 percent met or exceeded the accepted regeneration criteria for stands of that age. There were an average of 25,556 commercial seedlings per acre in the clearcuts and 89.4% of all the seedlings present were of commercial species. There was an average of 5.4 commercial tree species present per clearcut. Electric fencing has reduced deer browsing sufficiently so that clearcuts are regenerating successfully with commercial hardwood species.

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