Title:  Hemorrhagic diseases surveillance questionnaire, 1980-1989
Author(s): Nettles, V. F., W. R. Davidson and D. E. Stallknecht.
Year: 1991
Abstract: Annual questionnaires were sent to wildlife management agencies and related wildlifedisease oriented personnel during 1980-1989. Responses from these questionnaires revealed that hemorrhagic disease (HD), caused by either epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHD) or bluetongue virus (BT), was observed in 31 states. There were 1,602 instances reported from 875 counties. Approximately two-thirds of the cases confirmed by virus isolations were EHD virus, and instances of deer mortality were given in about one-third of the 1,602 observations. Among the epidemiologic features disclosed were geographic differences in frequency of HD outbreaks and their clinical manifestations. The lower tier of southern states had more instances of chronic HD whereas the states in more temperate climates had a greater frequency of acute disease. The questionnaire provides evidence that HD is enzootic in the southeastern United States and that the clinical disease due to HD may be dependent upon the characteristics of deer exposure to the virus vectors.

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