Title:  Effectiveness of antagonists for reversal of Telazol/Xylazine immobilization in female white-tailed deer.
Author(s): Brad F. Miller, Lisa I. Muller, and Tom Dougherty - University of Tennessee, David 0 . Osborn, Karl V. Miller and Robert J. Warren - University of Georgia
Year: 2003
Abstract: A combination of Telazol®/xylazine been shown to be effective in the chemical immobilization of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus); however, the lengthy duration of immobilization may limit usefulness. From October to November 2002,2 1 captive female deer were randomly assigned to an alpha2 antagonist treatment to reverse xylazine effects. All deer were given 220 mg of Telazol® (4.5 ;plusmn; 0.4 mg/kg) and 110 mg of xylazine (2.2 ± 0.2 mg/kg). Treatments were either 200 mg of tolazoline (4.0 ±0.4 mg/kg), 11 mg of atipamezole (0.23± 0.02 mg/kg), or 15 mg of yohimbine (0.30 ± 0.02 mg/kg) injected half intravenously and half subcutaneously 45 minutes after the intramuscular Telazol®/xylazine injection. Ten additional deer were immobilized as before, half given tolazoline and a carrier (Dimethyl Sulfoxide), and the rest given tolazoline, 5 mg flumazenil (lmg flumazenil / 22 mg zolazepam), and the carrier. Flumazenil antagonizes the zolazepam portion of Telazol®. Mean times from antagonist injection until a deer raised its head were significantly longer for yohimbine (62.3 ± 42.7 min.) than either atipamezole (24.3 ± 17.1 min.) or tolazoline (2 1.3 ± 14.3 min.). Mean times from antagonist injection until standing were not significantly different among yohimbine (112.0 ± 56.4 min), atipamezole (89.7 ± 62.8 min), or tolazoline (52.6 ± 37.2 min). A sedation score based on behavioral criteria was assigned every 30 minutes for 5 hours. Based on sedation scores, tolazoline resulted in a faster and more complete reversal of immobilization. The addition of flumazenil did not affect recovery.

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