Title:  The cost and chronology of Wisconsin deer-vehicle collisions.
Author(s): Pils, C. M. and M. A. Martin
Year: 1980
Abstract: Individual and statewide motorist costs of hitting deer were determined by sending out 1469 questionnaires to accident participants in 3 southern Wisconsin counties from 1976-78. Returns from 949 accident victims indicated that mean insurance claims increased from $407 in 1976 to $503 in 1978, while average personal repair estimates escalated from $1 89 to $3 18 during the same period. The total loss borne by accident participants was $22.1 million, assuming 18,200 deer were killed by vehicles annually. According to county accident reports, most deer vehicle collision occurred during November because of the rut and deer hunting activity. During all months, the highest rate of accidents occurred 1-2 hours after sunset. Defensive driving and continued use of the variable quota system are the best solutions to the collision problem.

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